Parque Natural "El Estrecho"
The Natural Park of the Strait is located at the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula and protects the marine-terrestrial space coast from Cove Getares (Algeciras) to Cape Grace (Tarifa) was declared a natural park in 2003 and has a protected 18,910 ha. It is the southernmost protected cultural joins the European continent and ecological, scenic, historic and unique characteristics space. Part of the Transcontinental Biosphere Reserve of the Mediterranean.
|Vista de sátelite del Estrecho de Gibraltar||Parque Natural del Estrecho ámbito terrestre y marítimo|
The costs of the park are bathed by two seas, on the east by the Mediterranean Sea and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The Strait of Gibraltar, which links these seas that separates Europe and Africa, is a stopping point for migratory birds and marine mammals. The minimum distance between the two continents is only 14 km from prehistoric times and this step is also a flyway men.
The union of two seas becomes the marine environment in a prime location with exceptional biodiversity of extraordinary interest. The climate of the area is characterized by mild temperatures and a dry season with a total absence of rain.
Like all parks in Andalusia, has a management board and one advisory which is the Governing Board. Since its inception the conservative director of the park is Jesus Cabello Medina, forestry engineer, a career official from the Ministry of Environment. The Governing Board is chaired by Sena Ildefonso Rodriguez, journalist and teacher, re-elected in February 2008 for a second term.
The park is located in the foothills of the Betic Cordilleras, geologically corresponds to the geological unit Algeciras, which extends also to the north of Morocco, and orogenic terrains. The unit consists of Algeciras Flychs Margo arenicoso-micaceous-Oligocene-Early Miocene the postorogenic land are located in the western part of the park and are unique to the Quaternary, are mainly alluvial deposits.
The principal geological formations of the park are the mountains of El Bujeo and Kid; respect to coastal submarine karst stand.
In eastern and due to the high slope of the mountains of El Bujeo there is no river wide entity, although several small rivers and runoff; between these rivers and the river Guadalmesí Marchenilla river valleys are highlighted; in the west the ground is lower and the Jara river located there and the Vega forming marshes at its mouth.
Flora and wildlife
Within the park you can find different ecosystems, each with its characteristic flora; Mediterranean scrubland is the most abundant, containing species such as palm, heather, mastic, argan, matagallo and other xerophytes species, cork oak forests are mainly in parts alternating with introduced Pinus species in riparian forests or canutos predominates along the rhododendron gall Andalusian or hornbeam and many species of ferns.
As for the fauna birds make their migration from Africa to Europe in number of tens of thousands. Are not abundant large mammals that are found in the nearby Natural Park of bedrooms due to the rugged terrain and the type of predominantly low vegetation, thereby itself can be found mongooses, genets and other small mammals.
Regarding the flora and fauna have been found underwater meadows of angiosperms in several areas of the park though, because of the swing of the waves do not form large concentrations. The marine fauna is exceptionally narrow, numerous species of minke whales, bottlenose dolphins, killer whales, sperm whales, blue whales, etc.
Las pruebas más antiguas de la andadura humana por estas tierras corresponden a los restos neandertales encontrados en el Peñón de Gibraltar que corresponden a una de las últimas poblaciones mundiales de este grupo humano; respecto a los restos correspondientes al humano moderno los más antiguos de la zona son del Paleolítico Inferior. Existen también unas 34 cuevas y abrigos conocidos con arte rupestre y diversas estructuras funerarias y dolménicas representativo de los periodos, desde el Paleolítico de la Cueva del Moro hasta la Edad de Bronce de la Necrópolis de los Algarbes con sus enterramientos megalíticos de galería cubierta.
Posteriormente el territorio ha estado poblado por todas las civilizaciones de la zona, así, dentro de los límites del parque se encuentran yacimientos cartagineses como Cala Arena, romanos como Baelo Claudia o medievales como el Recinto del Cerro de la Horca o el Castillo de Tarifa.
Bajo las aguas del parque es posible localizar multitud de pecios principalmente de la edad moderna.